Turmeric

Uses of Turmeric:

  • Used as a conditioner.
  • Useful as a dye varied uses in drug and cosmetic industries.
  • Used medicinally for external application and consumed as a stimulant.

Soil:

  • Different kinds of soils such as sandy loam to clay loam or alluvial soils are suitable. Well-drained loamy soils are the best.
  • Soil should be rich in organic matter and uniform in texture.
  • Rich loamy soils having natural drainage and irrigation facilities are the best.
  • Turmeric cannot withstand water stagnation or alkalinity.

Climate:

  • Tropical crop, requiring warm and humid climate.
  • Temperature range-246C to 28�C.
  • Growth ceases when, temperature falls below 20�C, and hence early-planted turmeric gives good yield.
  • Thrives well in localities with annual rainfall from 70 – 225 cm.
  • Can be grown at an altitude of 1200 m.

Cultivation of Turmeric:

I) Seed Material:

a. Seed Selection:

  • Seed of turmeric consists of rhizomes.
  • Both mother and finger rhizomes are used.
  • The fingers are cut into pieces, each 4-5 cm long with 1-2 buds. Mother rhizomes are planted as such or split into two, each having one sound bud.
  • Mother rhizomes are preferred since they give 50% more yields than the finger rhizome and also give good growth.
  • Large sized, plumy and healthy mother rhizomes at least 100 g in weight should be used.

b. Seed Rate:

  • Varies according to type of planting material, spacing and weight of rhizomes.
  • Mother rhizomes: 2000-2500 kg/ha.
  • Finger rhizomes: 1500-2000 kg/ha.
  • For Maharashtra: 2250 kg/ha.
  • As an intercrop in fruit garden: 400 – 500 kg/ha.

c. Seed Treatment:

Rhizomes are treated with 50 Lindane powder and Bavistine (2 g/1) by dipping for 15-20 minutes for prevention of diseases and rhizomes fly during early period.

II) Preparation of Land:

  • Starts immediately after harvest of previous crop or with/onset of early rains in plains.
  • Land is ploughed 15-20 cm deep arid exposed to sun for one month. 2-3 crosswise harrowing are given.
  • Temporary ridges are opened to prevent soil erosion on sloppy lands.

III) Systems of Planting:

  • Flat Beds: Used under rainfed conditions where soils are light. Flat beds 1 m in width and-of suitable length varying according to the slope of land are prepared.
  • Ridges and Furrows: Under irrigated-conditions where the land is leveled or plain and soils are heavy, planting is clone on ridges and furrows, opened at 75 cm distance and haying 3-3.5 m length. Broad ridges should having 90 -100 cm width and 3 – 6 m length depending on the slope.

Planting of Ginger:

a) Season of Planting: May to July depending on tract. In Maharashtra, second forth night of May is the best time of planting rhizomes.

Method of Planting:

  • On Flat Beds: (25 x 2.5 cm) in each direction.
  • On ridges and furrows: 40-60 x 25 cm.
  • Rhizomes are planted at l/3rd height of ridge on broad ridge.

Manuring and Fertilization:

Turmeric is a heavy feeder crop.On the basis of experiments conducted at Turmeric Research Station, Recommended fertilizer dose is; 25-31 ton FYM, 120 kg N, 50 kg P205 and 50 kg K20/ha.

Time of Application:

Intercropping:

Mixed crops like chilli, onion, brinjal and maize can be taken. In Maharashtra, it is recommended to grown French bean as an intercrop.

Aftercare:

a) Mulching:

  • Done when-planted on raised beds .
  • 2-3 mulching, are given.
  • 1st immediately after planting.
  • 2nd and 3rd at an interval of 40 – 50 days.

b) Earthing up:

  • To avoid exposure of developing underground rhizomes to sun due to soil erosion.
  • Done with light digging, 2 – 2.5 months after planting.

c) Weeding:

  • Pot is kept clean during first 4-6 weeks.
  • Depending on intensity of weeds, 5-6 weeding are given.

Irrigations:

  • First irrigation sis given before planting.
  • Second is given just after planting.
  • Subsequent irrigations are given at 7-10 days interval depending on soil.
  • A total of 20-25 irrigations are given, during the life period of the crop.

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