Ber Production Technology

JUJUBE, locally called ‘ber’, is an indigenous fruit of China and South Asia. Produced in temperate regions such as China, India, Pakistan, Syria, Malacca, Australia and Malaysia, it is also grown in parts of Afghanistan, Iran and Russia. China is perhaps the most important country for jujube cultivation, where it is known as the “Chinese dates”, with hundreds of varieties, some being seedless. In northern China, it is considered one of the principal fruits. In the US this fruit has been introduced but is not grown on a large scale. In Pakistan, ‘ber’ is successfully cultivated in Hyderabad, Khairpur, Multan, Sargodha and Lahore districts.

VARIETIES OF BER GROWN IN PAKISTAN

There are more than fifty varieties of ber are being grown in Pakistan. Some of them are

Dehli Sufaid

It is very delicious and large sized variety of Ber. Fruit shape is round. Average fruit weight is 28gram while average fruit size is 11cm2. Stone size is 1.7cm2 and stone weight is 1.5gram. Yield per tree is 230-240kg. Vitamin C contents are 134mg per 100 gram while TSS is 21%.

Dilbhar

This is early variety of Ber. Fruit size is very attractive and of large size upto 11cm2. Fruit weight is upto 25gram. Stone weight is 1gram and stone size is upto 1.2cm2. TSS is 15%. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies upto 112mg per 100gram. Yield per tree is 160-165kg.

Suffon

Fruit size of this variety is somewhat smaller then Dehli Sufaid. Average fruit weight is 16gram. Fruit size is 7cm2. Stone weight is 0.9gram while stone size is 1cm2. Total soluble solids are 17% while Vitamin C contents are 132gram per 100 gram. Average yield of fruit per tree is 115-120kg.

Faisalabad-1

It is very delicious variety of Ber. Average fruit weight is 28gram while average fruit size is 11cm2. Stone size is 1.4cm2 and stone weight is 2.1gram. Yield per tree is 170-175kg/plant. Vitamin C contents are 109mg per 100 gram while TSS is 17%

Ajooba

It is very delicious variety of Ber. Average fruit weight is 14gram while average fruit size is 7cm2. Stone size is 9cm2 and stone weight is 9gram. Yield per tree is 115-120kg/plant. Vitamin C contents are 134mg per 100 gram while TSS is 18%.

Fauladi

It is very delicious variety of Ber. Average fruit weight is 37gram while average fruit size is 13cm2. Stone size is 2cm2 and stone weight is 2.3gram. Yield per tree is 180-185kg/plant. Vitamin C contents are 113mg per 100 gram while TSS is 19%.

Mehmood Wali

Average fruit weight of this variety is 14gram. Fruit size is upto 6cm2. Stone size is .3cm2 while stone weight is 1.4gram. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies upto 103mg per 100gram. Yield per tree is 158-163kg while the TSS is 16%.

Saddiqia

It is very delicious variety of Ber. Average fruit weight is 10gram while average fruit size is 7.5cm2. Stone size is 0.7cm2 and stone weight is 0.7gram. Yield per tree is 170-175kg/plant. Vitamin C contents are 158mg per 100 gram while TSS is 23%.

Yazman Local

It is very delicious variety of Ber. Average fruit weight is 34gram while average fruit size is 13cm2. Stone size is 0.7cm2 and stone weight is 1.3gram. Yield per tree is 145-150kg/plant. Vitamin C contents are 82mg per 100 gram while TSS is 17%.

Gorh

This variety is also called Desi Ber and used fir rootstock purpose. Average fruit weight of this variety is 5gram. Fruit size is up to 3 cm2. Stone size is 0.2 cm2 while stone weight is 0.5gram. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies up to 177mg per 100gram, while the TSS is 24. Yield per tree is 137-140kg.

Khobani

Average fruit weight of this variety is 13gram. Fruit size is upto 7cm2. Stone size is 0.3 cm2 while stone weight is1.2gram. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies upto 167mg per 100gram while the TSS is 18%. Yield per tree is 117-120kg.

Bhawalpur Selection

Average fruit weight of this variety is 21 gram. Fruit size is upto 11 cm2. Stone size is 1.6 cm2 while stone weight is 2.2gram. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies upto 128mg per 100gram, while the TSS is 16%. Yield per tree is 195-198kg.

Anokhi

This is also very delicious variety which develops reddish to brown spots on maturity. Average fruit weight of this variety is 16 gram. Fruit size is upto 7 cm2. Stone size is 1.6 cm2 while stone weight is 1.2gram. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies upto 102mg per 100gram, while the TSS is 16%. Average Yield per tree is 190-195kg.

Allu Bukhara

This is late variety of ber reaches in market at end of March. Average fruit weight of this variety is 23gram. Fruit size is upto 10 cm2. Stone size is 0.6 cm2 while stone weight is 1.3gram. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies upto 132mg per 100gram, while the TSS is 17%. Yield per tree is 210-215kg.

Pak White

This variety can be store for more days as compare to others so can be marketed to distant areas. Average fruit weight of this variety is 31gram. Fruit size is upto 13 cm2. Stone size is 0.5 cm2 while stone weight is 2gram. Vitamin C contents in this variety lies upto 122mg per 100gram, while the TSS is 19%. Yield per tree is 200-205 kg.

Land preparation is considered the initial task for any crop cultivation. A good land preparation is necessary for proper and rapid growth of the crop. Land preparation varies from one grower to another. It was found that most of the growers prepare their land with one gobble plough, followed by 2-3 cultivators per acre. It was also observed that 81% of the respondents leveled their land before planting of jujube trees.

Planting method

The plant to plant distance should be 25 feet to maintain the 35 to 40 plants in one acre. If the land is not ready for planting keeps the budded plants in the shade and apply irrigation through sprinkler time to time for 2 to 3 days, when the land comes in condition, then first of all put the plants near the ear marked spots, especially in one plot. After that dig the pit from the center and if the plant in the pit, the plant should be erect, not too below or above the surface. Put the soil and fix the budded plants in the center of the pit. In this way all the plants should be fitted, then immediately irrigated the area with irrigation water. 3 to 4 irrigation turn should be given at the interval of 3 to 4 days.

Propagation Method

Jujube can be propagated through seed, root cutting, grafting and budding. Generally the seed collected from fully ripen fruits are viable although in many cases seed treated by H2S04 their stratification with sand, keeping in warm place, or extraction of seed by breaking the hard shell helps in early germination. Seedling may be germinated in small containers to four leaf stage and may be planted in the field at a distance of 10-12 meters between them. Budding is considered useful for the development of new varieties. The jujube seeds are sown in the field at desirable distance and budding is done since success in transplanting of seedling is difficult. Whip grafting has been practiced successfully for jujube. Both ring and shield budding can be done successfully during July, whereas, only shield budding is more feasible during August September. Budding during March, April gives very little success, as there is little sap slow in the mother plant.

Planting time and varieties

Time of planting is an important factor for its rapid and successful growth. Crop sown on proper time, gave best germination. The best time for planting and budding are first February to March and second is during monsoon from August to October. There are many varieties like soofi, kheerol (chambeli), sanghri and gola. Gola is most popular and is of two kinds, the green (leemai) and the golden (white). White gola is harvested earlier commonly grown in the area. It was investigated that 75% respondents planted the gola variety, and 10% planted soofi, kheerol (chambeli) and sanghri variety.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

x

Check Also

Fig Cultivation

Introduction Fig is among oldest fruits to be cultivated on earth. Fig has different name ...

error: Bakhaber Kissan Content is protected !!