Sheep and goats

Diseases

Contagious Caprine Pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP)

(Pleuropneumonia)

Sign and symptoms:

Cough, Dyspnoea, Lagging, Lying down a lot, Fever 105-106 F and in terminated stages, there is mouth breathing tongue protrusion and frothy salivation.

Treatment

      • Separate the diseased animal.
      • Vaccination mus be done during May and November in a year.
      • Lincomycine and Tylosin is effective use with the prescription of Veterinarian.

Pesti des Petitis Ruminants (PPR)

(Kata/Moosari /Nazla aur dast/Khooni dast)

Sign and symptoms

Temp 106-107 F, purulent nasal discharge, necrotic lesion in mouth, swollen lips, profuse diarrhea, coughing, dyspnoea & pneumonia. In Sub-acute cases sheep die in 24 hours, less signs are evident.

Treatment and Control

      • Vaccination must be done in all susceptible animals.
      • Isolation of infected animal from other healthy animals
      • No specific treatment, Tylosine may be effected
      • Glycerin apply on mouth lesion and soft food should be given to animal like daliya, fresh green fodder etc.
      • Vitamin C @ 6 tablets/animal should be given.

Enterotoxaemia (Pulpy Kidney Disease)

Sign and symptoms

High fever, diarrhea (pasting of hind quarter), Mostly affects lambs, kids and calves. Lush green fodders, grains, highly milk feed are pre-disposing to this disease.

Treatment and Control

      • Vaccinate the animals against enterotoxaemia.
      • For an outbreak, vaccinate with type D toxoid on day 1 and again 12 to 14 days later, de-worm, and reduce grain until the vaccine takes effect. Oxytetracycline is effective.

Fascioliasis

(Raij/Pait ka Kiara)

Sign and symptoms

Acute fascioliasis sudden death with discharge of frothy Blood, through nostrils and anus. In chronic form, animal becomes lazy, mucous membranes become pale and skin becomes dry, subsequently edema starts developing particularly below the mandibles and the condition is known as bottle jaw condition.

Treatment and Control

      • Animals should not graze at same area for a week.
      • Regular deworming of the animals with levamisole, febendazole, albendazole etc. after every 3 month according to company recommendation.
      • Triclabendazole or Albendazole is a drug of choice.

Tympany/Bloat (Grain overload)

(Aphara / Bharti)

Sign and symptoms

Sudden death, Abdomen is enlarged Dyspnea and grunting are marked and are accompanied by mouth breathing, protrusion of the tongue, extension of the head, and frequent urination

Treatment and control

      • Reducing the level of legume in the diet or pasture
      • Feeding some wheat straw or grass hay prior to parturition
      • Supplementing the diet with ploxaline, a nonionic surfactant, to prevent bloat.
      • Soybean Oil 60ml PO, Carbacol Injection 1-3 ml S/C
      • As last resort, use Trocar Canula to save the life of the animal.

Goat /Sheep Pox

(Chechak)

Sign and symptoms

Fever, Eyelids become swollen, and mucopurulent discharge crusts the nostrils. Widespread skin lesions develop and are most readily seen on the muzzle, ears, and areas free of wool or long hair. Acute respiratory distress

Treatment and control

      • Vaccination should be done during March and September in a year.
      • Use boric acid on the lesions.
      • Affected animals should be isolated immediately
      • Sheep and goats around the outbreak area should be vaccinated as soon as possible

Housing

Housing or sheltering doesn’t affect much in domestic sheep and goat rearing. But for commercial goat farming purpose making a suitable house or shelter for sheep and goats is a must. Always ensure a good drainage system and cleaning facilities inside the house. Ensure sufficient flow of light and fresh air inside the house. Always try to make south faced house.

Suitable goat housing or shelter is very important for goat farming business. Because goats also need house like other domestic animals for staying at night, security, preventing them from adverse climate, cold, sunlight etc. Some people used to keep their sheep and goats with other domestic animals such as cow, sheep etc. Even in some areas, people used to keep their goats under trees. But if you want to establish a profitable commercial goat farm, then you must have to build a suitable house for your goats. Before building house for sheep and goats, read the following tips very carefully.

      • Try to select a dry and higher place for making the goat house. Ensure that, the selected sheep and goat housing area is high enough to keep the goats safe from floods.
      • You must have to keep the floor of the house dry always.
      • Always ensure the huge follow of light and air inside the house.
      • Make house in such a way so that it become very suitable for controlling temperature and moisture.
      • Always keep the house free from being damped. Because damping condition is responsible for various diseases.
      • Never let the rain water enter inside the house.
      • Try to make the wall of the house with concrete or by using bamboo poles.
      • The house must have to strong and comfortable.
      • Keep enough space inside the house for taking rest.
      • The house must have to have the facilities of cleaning well regularly.

Sheep and goats are feared about cold and water. So take extra care in rainy and winter season. Otherwise they may caught by Pneumonia.

Types of House

Sheep and goat house can be made by using various designs. And specific goat housing design is suitable for specific production purpose. Two types of house are most common for raising goats.

Housing over Ground

Generally this type of houses are made over the ground. This is the most common house for goats. You can make the floor of this type of goat house with brick and cement or simply with soil. It will be better, if you can spread some dry straw over the floor in this housing system. But you must have to keep the house dry and clean always.

Housing over Pole

This type of houses are made over pole. The floor of the house heights about 1 to 1.5 meters (3.5 to 5 ft.) from the ground. This type of house keeps the goat free from damping condition, flood water etc. The poles and floor in this housing system are usually made with bamboo or wood. This types of house is very suitable for sheep and goat farming, because it is very easy to clean. And you can easily clean the closet and urine of sheep and goat form the house. Diseases are also less in this housing system.

Concrete House

This types of goat houses are fully made with concrete, and slightly expensive. But concrete houses have many advantages. It is very easy to clean the house, and easy to always keep your goats safe from all types of predators. You can construct the house over ground or over concrete poles. Both types are easily maintained. Diseases are less in this housing system. But it is very expensive method of goat housing.

Space Requirement

In accordance with increasing the body size and weight of sheep and sheep and goats, they require more space. It will be better, if you can keep the nursing and pregnant sheep and goats separately. You can extend or decrease the area of goat house according to the number of goat in your farm. But keep in mind that, every goat needs their required space for proper growing and better production. Chart of Required Space for Goats According to Their Age and Nature given below.

Nutrition

Well goat feed management is also very essential for commercial sheep and goat farming business. Goats are not carnivorous animal. They don’t eat other animals. Usually goats prefer to eat grasses, plants, shrubs, weeds and herbs. Besides those feeds, goat also need energy, portion, vitamins, fiber and water for proper growth and for making better profits from this business.

Pasture and browsing

The most efficient source of nutrients which is urgent for sheep and goat is pasture and browse. Pasture contains a high amount of energy and protein. Pasture plants also increase the tastiness and digestibility. Sudan grass, millet, a mixture of a grain grass, sorghum, grass and clover are the most pasture of sheep and goats. Browse that helps to be advanced in protein than general pasture during the early part of grazing season. If sheep and goats browse freely, they will remain free from internal parasites. Pasture is high in energy, protein, and palatability when it is in a vegetative state. However, it can have a high moisture content when it is rapidly growing, and sometimes it can be difficult for high-producing animals to eat enough grass to meet their nutrient requirements.

Grazing management is when you control the grazing habits of animals on pasture. What animals, how, when, and for how long they graze a pasture determines the species make-up of the pasture and its long term viability, how much forage it yields, and how well the animals perform. Overgrazing and under grazing pastures is detrimental to plant and animal health, as well as soil and water quality.

Hay

In the winter season, the most important source of nutrition is hay. Sheep and goat should feed qualified grass based hay that does not contain mold. Weedy hay is so beneficial because it is not only cheap, but also containing a large amount of nutrition. Different kinds of hays are found, among those legume hays berseem and Lucerne are enriched in protein.

Vitamins and minerals

Sheep and goats need a lot of minerals. Salt, phosphorus and calcium contain minerals which is useful for sheep and goats. Farmer should provide a pre-mix of loose minerals that sheep and goats prefer so much. Sheep and goats don’t need a lot of vitamins. Sheep and goats need vitamins A, D and E.

Concentrates (grain)

It is often necessary to feed concentrates to sheep and goat to provide the nutrients that forage alone cannot provide. This is particularly true in the case of high-producing animals. There are also times and situations where concentrates are a more economical source of nutrients than forages. Creep feeding and supplemental feeding of lambs has been shown to increase weight gains and market acceptability. The economics of supplemental feeding will vary by operation.

Water

Small ruminants should have access to clean, fresh water at all times. A mature animal will consume between ¾ to 1 ½ gallons of water per day. Water requirements and intake increase greatly during late gestation and during lactation. Water requirements increase substantially when environmental temperatures rise and decline with very cold environmental temperatures. Inadequate water intake can cause various health problems. In addition water and feed intake are positively correlated

Vaccination

Vaccination schedule

Precautions

      • Use the vaccine’s label as a guide regarding how and when to give that particular product.
      • Maintain the cold chain of freeze vaccine use immediately after making of vaccine
      • Vaccines should be given at strategic times of the year or season.
      • For subcutaneous injections, use a sharp ½- to ¾-inch length and 16- or 18-gauge diameter needle. One good site for subcutaneous vaccinations is over the ribs

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