Potato is grown under temperate, subtropical and tropical conditions. It is essentially a “cool weather crop”, with temperature being the main limiting factor on production. Optimum temperature for germination, vegetative growth and tuber formation in potato is 25°C, 20°C and 16-24°C respectively. Tuber growth is sharply inhibited in temperatures below 10°C and above 30°C,while optimum yields are obtained where mean daily temperatures are in the 18 to 20°C۔
The potato can be grown almost on any type of soil except saline and alkaline soils. Naturally loose soils which offer the least resistance to enlargement of the tubers are preferred and loamy and sandy loam soils that are rich in organic matter with good drainage and aeration is most suitable. Soil with a pH range of 5.2-6.4 is considered ideal. To prevent the build-up of pathogens in the soil, farmers avoid growing potato on the same land from year to year.