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Overcoming Constraints on Wheat Production

More than 50 per cent area in Punjab every year is under wheat cultivation, which shows the socio-economic importance of the crop for farmers and their influence to its yield. Climate here is favorable for the production and growth of wheat, having high-yielding varieties, sufficient resources, rich land and hardworking farmers. But stills growers fail to accomplish the optimum potential of wheat crop. There are many restraints in raising wheat. To sustain any crop the quality seed is a basic requirement. Crop yield depends on availability of quality seeds of improved varieties as efficiency of agricultural inputs depends on seed potential.

10 per cent certified seed is provided by Punjab Seed Corporation only to the farming community. This shortage of quality seed can be met by boosting more private companies having good repute, firming the private-public relationship, growing capacity of the Punjab Seed Corporation and facility of technical support for production of quality seeds.

Sowing crop on time guarantees better yield than the late sowing, because late sowing of fails to complete its physiological processes and ultimately it remains under stress and thus fails to determine its full potential. Notable point is that only 20 per cent wheat crop is planted before November 15, that is the optimum planting time, and 80 % is planted late every year. That’s the reason of considerable decrease in yield because of delayed sowing i-e One per cent per day i.e. 10-15 kg per day per hectare. Normally in cotton belts (44.9 per cent) delayed planting of wheat takes place and in rice track (21.3 per cent) that can be overcome by turbo-seeder , zero-tillage drill, early sowing varieties of cotton, late sowing varieties of wheat , using less time for land preparation and sowing of wheat in standing sticks of cotton crop. So, these practices allow farmers to save time, but still there are constraints which decrease yield of crop.

If the quality of seed is poor it will results in poor germination and thus less number of plant population per unit area. Plant population can be optimized by sowing recommended seed at a proper depth in line with a drill before November 15. Although plant population per unit area is never considered to be an issue in wheat fields although it directly has a role in total productivity.

Water transport raw materials and minerals from soil to the chemical reaction site and thus involved in all chemical activities within the plant body. Experiments show that crown growth initiation, booting and grain filling (milking) stages critical growth stages of wheat towards irrigation.
Physiological, chemical and enzymatic function are disturbed due to the shortage of water during these critical stages within the crop that cannot be overcome later, even giving plenty of water supply to wheat plant.

Sowing of wheat on beds, Sprinkler irrigation leveling of land by laser, de-silting of canal, mulching, lining of water courses and water courses, application of water in critical stages and introduction of drought resistant varieties are useful in managing this problem of poor yield.
Weeds reduce yield by 12-35 per cent by competing with crop for nutrients, space, and sunlight. These entire problems can be reduced to great level by use of clean seed, crop rotation, clean cultivation, sprinkler irrigation, planting of wheat on beds, optimum planting geometry and controlling of weeds on field bunds and water courses.

No doubt, we have hardworking farmers and enough natural resources, but there is lack of planning and management .Jazz Bakhabar Kissan promote co-operative farming, strengthen co-ordination and educate the farmers with new agricultural technologies to increase wheat yield. It provides all information especially related to good quality seed and fertilizers to farmers when the wheat season starts. Jazz Bakhabar Kissan manages and overcome these problems by giving technical assistance to farmers.

About Sadia Noorin

Msc(Hons.) Plant Pathology, ARID AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY RAWALPINDI

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